Embryonic Development and Comparative Anatomy of the Mandible

Shaibu Mohammed Atabo, Abubakar Abubakar Umar, Sani Abdullahi Shehu, Adamu Abdul Abubakar


Objective: This study was designed to determine the ossification time and pattern of the mandible. Methodology: Three hundred and fifty (350) wasted fetuses consisting of 70 Balami, 140 each of Uda and Yankasa breeds whose crown vertebral rump length ranged from 3.0-15 cm were used. The fetuses were processed using the Alizarin technique and the mandible was dissected from the head for stereography. Result: The result revealed that the first part of the mandible to develop was the body and mental foramina at the 42nd–44th days of gestation while the coronoid process, rami, and condyloid process develop later at different time points. In addition, the mandibular foramina remained undeveloped in all age groups. Interestingly, the mandibular canal began ossification earlier in the Yankasa breed compared to other breeds. It was shown to arise from a cartilaginous tissue at the medial and lateral surfaces of the body and dorsally remained opened and undifferentiated from the teeth alveoli of the lower jaws in the 7 age groups. Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that the mandible arises from three ossification centres at the body, rami, and coronoid process. These segments develop at different time intervals in the three breeds of sheep with Yankasa mandible ossifying and progressing faster than in Balami and Uda.


Doi: 10.28991/SciMedJ-2021-0301-3

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Ossification Centre; Mandible; Foramen; Balami; Uda; Yankasa.


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DOI: 10.28991/SciMedJ-2021-0301-3


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